What computers were made in the USSR: cry or applaud?

Modern personal computers are striking in their functionality and technical characteristics, but most of them are of foreign origin. And today, very few people remember that the Soviet Union was among the leaders of the countries producing computers. Meanwhile, the direction began to develop back in the 80s, conquering all new heights, and this continued until the collapse of the USSR.




Content:

1 History of the first computers

2 The best Soviet models-

2.1 Specialist (1985)
2.2 Corvette (1987)
2.3 Robotron 1715 (1984-1989)
2.4 "Lviv PK-01" (1986-1991)
2.5 Agate (1984-1993)

History of the first computers

The policy of the Soviet Union was distinguished by its particular secrecy. Many of the achievements of science and technology were unknown even to the citizens of the country. The history of PC development was no exception.  At the beginning of the 50s, the first electronic computers (computers) produced on the European continent saw the light. Device S.A. Lebedev had 600 light bulbs, and made it possible to advance in the mastery of nuclear energy and the exploration of space, thanks to the rapid solution of important technical problems using technology.


In 1952, under the leadership of the same Lebedev, the most productive computer in Europe was released, which became one of the best in the world.


In the period from 1955 to 1959, the foundations of programming were laid, the technique began to be improved, creating algorithms for determining various diseases, including genetic ones. Top-end machines are beginning to appear, capable of solving most of the applied problems in science and technology, which help the USSR to actively develop, reaching the forefront in all areas.


During this period, analogs of home PCs appear, the technology continues to develop rapidly. In the 70s, the production of microprocessors began, microcircuits became more and more complex. Structures become easier to manage and their cost is reduced.


The best Soviet models

In 1983, the first computer for home use appears. Devices are becoming popular among people who are not directly related to computing. Full-fledged PCs are starting to roll off the conveyor belts.


Specialist (1985)

8-bit computer, which became an analogue for many subsequent popular models. The device operated on the LSI K580 hardware platform with a clock frequency of 2 MHz. A cassette recorder and a printer could be connected to it, while the internal memory of 32 KB was expanded using ROM.


Corvette (1987)

Produced as a training computer, which was also used for household purposes. It was the Corvettes that were equipped with many informatics classes of that time. It worked at a clock frequency of 2.5 MHz and could perform 625 operations per second.


Connected not only to monochrome, but also to color TV. Connectors for connecting other external devices such as a printer or a mouse were also present. However, the hardware component of the device turned out to be flawed, which greatly interfered with its stable operation.


Robotron 1715 (1984-1989)

A multifunctional computer that not only supported popular prediction languages, but also had a number of built-in games. Its owners could enjoy spending time with Tetris, Snake and even electronic Chess. Processor - U880 worked at 2.5 MHz. The main disadvantage of the device was considered to be the lack of sound and a mouse connector.


"Lviv PK-01" (1986-1991)

A promising device that was produced for educational purposes. It was used to equip computer science classrooms, both in schools and institutes.


The functionality of the device allowed playing, reading and even performing some tasks on it. It had connectors for connecting a tape recorder and a printer. The first could be used as external memory. It was created at the Lviv Polytechnic Institute and was produced until the collapse of the USSR, in several modifications.


"Agate" (1984-1993)

The first computer designed for mainstream home use and education. There were many modifications of the device, which differed from each other in technical characteristics and the number of connectors for connecting external devices. Some Agat models were equipped with color monitors and floppy drives. Some versions also included two game joysticks.


The device was powered by a MOS Technology 6502 processor, effectively becoming the Soviet equivalent of the Apple II.


5 classified developments of the USSR: technologies that were carefully hidden from citizens.

Despite the fact that almost 30 years have passed since the collapse of the Soviet Union, some interesting details about this country still surface in the media. The so-called Iron Curtain allowed the authorities to hide serious disasters, tragedies, and secret scientific developments from the public for years. In this article we will tell you about some amazing Soviet projects, information about which became known relatively recently.



Content:

1 Laser technology

2 Soviet biorobot dog. Collie project

3 Ekranoplan "Caspian Sea Monster"

4 Brain radio of Kazhinsky

5 Cyborg - human and robot


  • Laser technology

In addition to experiments on animals, the USSR actively tried to master laser technologies. One of the most outstanding developments, many years ahead of their time, was the Omega laser cannon. The main task of the vehicle was to destroy enemy aircraft.

During the Soviet-Chinese conflict over the territorial ownership of Damansky Island, the authorities of the USSR used a cannon and, according to eyewitnesses, it literally burned out all the enemy's equipment to the ground.


  •  Soviet biorobot dog. Collie project

In the second half of the 20th century, active experiments on animals began in the USSR. One of the most outstanding achievements was Vladimir Demikhov's two-headed dog, which remained alive for a whole month after the operation.

In 1958, the Union authorities attracted the best scientists to create a new perfect biological weapon. The idea of ​​the project was to transplant the heads of the soldiers to the invulnerable body of the robot. They decided to carry out the first experiments on dogs.


Ekranoplan "Caspian Sea Monster"

The arms race forced the USSR to constantly work to create new and more powerful weapons for killing. One of these projects was the construction of the world's largest ekranoplan rocket carrier "Lun".


Its dimensions were amazing: a wingspan of 44 meters, 73.8 meters in length and 380 tons of takeoff weight. It is quite natural that such a colossus did not go unnoticed by the Americans, who were able to observe the flight of the missile carrier from space.

Now you can look at this "monster" in Derbent. The missile carrier was placed in the Patriot park this year, whereas earlier it was in the Caspian flotilla.


Kazhinsky Brain Radio

In 1923, scientist Bernard Kazhinsky proposed a scheme for a device that converts brain impulses into sound signals. He believed that the human brain is capable of emitting and receiving radio waves.


The experiments were carried out on the animals of Vladimir Durov's circus. With the help of the device, Kazhinsky was able to convey the order to the dog to enter the room and take a certain book. However, after the experiment, the test subjects refused to follow the trainer's commands.


They eliminated Kazhinsky and delegated the project to a group of other scientists. As a result, they managed to create an apparatus that turned an army of thousands of soldiers into obedient robots. However, the manufacture of the car turned out to be too expensive, so the launch of their mass production did not take place.


Cyborg - human and robot

Very little is still known about the project to create cyborgs in the USSR. According to Yuri Vorobyevsky, who was able to watch a training video for closed laboratories, scientists were collecting a robot with titanium joints from the body parts of wounded soldiers.

By sending impulses to certain parts of the brain, they were able to make it move. These studies were probably not very successful because little is known about them now.


The arms race forced the USSR to throw all its efforts into creating incredible murder weapons. Almost all experiments were strictly classified and ordinary people knew nothing about them. It is possible that something similar is happening now, but we will not find out about it as soon as we would like.

How much RAM do Android and iPhone need and why is there such a difference?

RAM is one of the most important indicators that we pay attention to when choosing a smartphone. For most Android devices, it can reach 12 GB, while iPhones work quietly even at 4. What is the reason for this difference?


Why do Yabloko and Android devices have different needs?

Many people mistakenly believe that the main problem of high consumption of RAM on Android lies in the imperfection of the system itself. In fact this is not true.




And there are two main reasons for such a significant difference:


  1. Android apps take up more space.
  2. Apple has a better optimization system. When the RAM on the device is fully loaded, the system starts compressing some open applications to free up some space. However, this process is very different on Android and iOS. Android simply shrinks the entire application, making it about half the size, while iOS divides all information into so-called dirty and clean pages. Clean memory refers to memory that is no longer used. During optimization, the program simply throws it out of the RAM. Dirty pages are still needed for applications to work, so they are simply compressed.


Thus, manufacturers of Android devices have solved the problem of lack of memory in an elementary way, they have simply increased its volume. In the meantime, Apple has invested more in the software part, properly allocating the resources of its hardware through smart algorithms for compressing files in the RAM.


Dependence of performance on memory size

  • The RAM in the phone performs the same role as in the computer, keeping all the data used in quick access. And if the application is loaded into RAM, it will instantly start from the same place where it was closed, which is very convenient. The rest of the programs are first unloaded from the drive into the RAM and only then are launched.
  • Thus, the amount of RAM directly affects the multitasking of a smartphone. And the higher this indicator, the more applications will remain open at the same time. However, it is worth remembering that the performance of a phone depends not only on the amount of RAM, but also on the speed at which it processes data. So, two different models with the same RAM can work in completely different ways. Therefore, when choosing a smartphone, it is very important to pay attention to the RAM bandwidth.




So how much do you need?

It is not so easy to determine the required amount of RAM for comfortable work. It is important to consider the type of OS and the future load on the smartphone. For example, for communication in social networks on an Android device, 2 GB of RAM will be enough. Simple games run perfectly on a smartphone with 3-4 GB of RAM, and more demanding programs will need about 6 GB.


The amount of RAM is undoubtedly a very important indicator for any smartphone . However, the principle "The more the better" does not work here. Instead, in the same Apple, the developers have found an excellent solution to improve the performance of smartphones without increasing the amount of RAM. Because of this, iPhones with 2GB of RAM often perform better than Androids with 4GB.

Computers will consume the world by 2050 - forecast from the director of Google.

Technologies are developing so rapidly that the possibility of global automation of the world cannot be ruled out in the near future. Ray Kurzweil, director of Google and concurrent technology futurist, is actively sharing his vision of the future with the general public. According to his frequent remarks, you can even paint the stages of future changes, up to the end of the century.



Further development of technologies

The future through the eyes of Kurzweil looks rather unusual, but many fantastic assumptions of the past turned out to be a modern reality.


Further development of technology, according to the man, will look like this:

Year Changes

  • 2021 The introduction of wireless cheap Internet on 85% of the world
  • 2022 Robots will become commonplace. Advanced countries to issue a set of laws governing the relationship between robots and their owners
  • 2024 Autopilot vehicles will completely replace manual vehicles. The latter will be completely banned in a number of countries
  • 2025-2026 There will be implantable gadgets and technologies that extend human life
  • 2028 Solar energy will become key and affordable
  • 2029 Computers are getting smarter than the average person thanks to software brain modeling
  • 2031-2032 Nanotechnology and 3D printers become available for medicine
  • 2034 The emergence of intelligent biorobots
  • 2035 The space industry level allows you to protect the planet from meteorites and other celestial bodies
  • 2036 3D printers allow printing any tissue and organs, which takes transplantation to a new level
  • 2038 The possibilities of medicine will allow programming human cells for self-healing
  • 2041 The power of thought will be enough to use search engines, which will be literally everywhere
  • 2042 Humanity is getting closer to immortality. An army of nanobots implanted into the body will protect the body from diseases
  • 2043 It becomes possible to replace internal organs with cybernetic devices
  • 2044 Artificial intelligence becomes billions of times smarter than human
  • 2049 The start of the technological singularity

How accurate such bold predictions turn out to be, only time will tell. However, over the years, such assumptions seem less fantastic.

Ray Kurzweil and the accuracy of his predictions

Ray Kurzweil is a renowned futurist who has been speculating about the future for years. Moreover, some of his bold "predictions" are being successfully implemented to this day.  In support of his predictions, Ray cites many graphs based on the past pace of technology development. Of course, it cannot be reliably asserted that the rate of technological progress will remain the same, so all Kurzweil's forecasts are just assumptions.


The periods of growth spurts in the IT industry may also differ from the forecasts of the director of Google. What is really difficult to disagree with is the rapid progress in the field of computer technology, which will undoubtedly affect people and their way of life.


Good or bad?

It is rather difficult to imagine the world of the future voiced by Kurzweil, as well as to objectively evaluate it. One can only speculate how automation and the appearance of nanorobots will affect the quality of life of people.

With nano-robots and 3D printers, there is every chance of making many deadly diseases curable. On the other hand, the problem of overpopulation of the planet will appear, which is relevant today. And if people cope with the shortage of food, then the issue of lack of water will be especially acute. Humanity should also think about the friendliness of artificial intelligence, which will be smart enough to find its power sources.


At this stage of development, it is too early to talk about the nature of the impact of rapid progress. It is not possible to evaluate what does not yet exist. But it's worth thinking about today.

The pace of technology development is accelerating every year. Such progress inevitably leads to the so-called technological singularity. However, when exactly it will come - in 50 or 500 years, no one can say.

How a chip works in a pig's brain - know-how from Elon Musk

Android

The head of the startup Neuralink held an online presentation of the neural interface and the robot for its implantation. The event was attended by experimental animals, the main of which was a pig.



Musk planted a pig

Elon Musk spoke in some detail about a miniature (2.3x0.8 cm) chip, which has wires thinner than a human hair and fits under the wearer's skin at the same level as the skull. Perhaps the greatest pride of the developers is not the size of the chip, but the throughput and ease of use of thin and flexible wires that do not touch blood vessels and, unlike rigid needles, practically do not cause damage.

The audience in the studio watched with particular curiosity the pigs that were in the pen behind Musk's back. However, after the demonstration, Neuralink introduced energetic animals. He paid special attention to the pig Gertrude, in whose skull an implant was implanted. Every time she found food, bursts of her brain activity were displayed on the screen.


Another pig, which had a similar chip integrated earlier, was also present at the science show . Over time, the chip was removed, presenting to the public and viewers a living and healthy pig as confirmation of the harmlessness of the technology.


The operation to implant the chip takes less than an hour, Musk said.

By the way, about the device. It has 1024 channels to transmit information from neurons. Built-in wireless transmitter, IMU-sensor (accelerometer + gyroscope), pressure and temperature sensors, rechargeable battery (its charge lasts for a day, powered by a magnetic charger).

Another trick or a sensational experiment?

It is no secret that Musk is a very ambitious figure, demonstrating high results and achievements in various fields. The successes of his car company Tesla, and even more so of SpaceX Corporation, do not give rise to doubt about the seriousness of his intentions.


The neurointerface he has demonstrated is so far only a reading device that provides data from the pig's brain. But the very fact of its existence is already a great achievement.

Earlier, Musk stated that the next logical stage in human development is the symbiosis of digital and biological intelligences. And the experiment described above is a successful start.


What will happen next?

In the near future, the chip is expected to be implanted into the human body. Most likely, this will happen at the end of this year or early next year. The approval of all authorities is required for this type of operation. The heroes of the first clinical trials will be people with paralysis of the lower or upper limbs, as well as with complete or partial paralysis resulting from damage to the cervical region.

In addition to paralysis, he hopes to solve the problems of hearing loss, vision and memory, insomnia, depression, anxiety, severe pain, seizures, addiction, etc. People with disabilities will be able to freely use their phones and computers. It will also be possible to monitor the health of patients and warn them about the approaching heart attack.


In the long term, it is planned to create a chip that can restore absolute mobility to people with significant spinal cord injuries.

A successful experiment on implanting a neurointerface into a pig's brain opens up great prospects for humanity . And thanks to this, really effective methods of treating various serious pathologies that are poorly amenable to therapy at present can be found very soon.



Movable in real estate - 5 incredible optical illusions of motion from the Internet.

Android

The brain sometimes gives out wishful thinking, especially if pictures with optical illusions appear in front of your eyes. By the way, artists of the end of the last century began to actively use this effect. As for the digital age, it only allowed contemporaries to diversify visual tricks.



Content:

1 Visual maze

2 Wall in a cafe

3 Stress test

4 Beating heart

5 Rotation of a star around its axis

Visual maze

Artist Peter Kogler from Vienna has been creating art for over 30 years. Especially noteworthy is his series of psychedelic installations at the ING Art Center in Brussels.

In it, Peter used color, light and projection, which allowed him to literally distort, "twist" simple galleries, as well as transit centers and lobbies.

Cafe wall

This illusion was first painted on the wall of one of the cafes in English Bristol. It looks like a chessboard sawn into pieces and reassembled in random order. The alternating light and dark squares are not lined up with figures in adjacent horizontal rows. That is why all the lines in the panel appear to be tilted at different angles. But in fact they are absolutely straight and parallel to each other, while distortion is an optical illusion. People primarily focus on the contrast between dark and light spaces. This contrast is subconsciously used to define other shapes before the viewers focus on all the elements of the image.


Stress test

“It turned out that the whole world is circling around you,” concluded pop singer Dmitry Monatik, puzzled by the question “How to live?”. However, he found a solution - to start dancing.

This psychedelic circular tunnel will surely contribute to this solution, spinning even the most stable person. If this three-dimensional model rotates faster and faster, and your health worsens from this, then you should pay special attention to your health.


Beating heart

And Pushkin wrote: "Oh, it's not difficult to deceive me! .. I myself am glad to be deceived!" This deception would have amused him.

The eyes try to study every millimeter of a given image. But when they move, looking at the dark heart, it begins to pulsate and grow in size. This perception occurs due to the narrowed transition of the white lines into the dark area.


Rotation of a star around its axis

Another illusion was created by the artist Kaya Nao. The Japanese drew a "moving" star. As soon as you hold your eyes on it, it starts rotating clockwise. At the same time, it is extremely difficult to believe that the star is static.